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Valve material comparison table-valve pressure-temperature

The relationship between valve temperature and pressure:
The valve operating temperature and pressure have a certain internal connection and influence each other. Among them, temperature is the dominant factor affecting the valve. A valve with a certain pressure is only suitable for a

ductile iron, DI, butterfly valve, manufacturer, center line, TH valve

ductile iron, DI, butterfly valve, manufacturer, center line, TH valve

certain temperature range, and changes in valve temperature can affect the valve’s operating pressure. E.g:
The nominal pressure of a carbon steel valve is 10MPa. When the medium working temperature is 200℃, its maximum working pressure P20 is 10MPa; when the medium working temperature is 400℃, its maximum working pressure P40 is 5.4MPa; when the medium works When the temperature is 450℃, the maximum working pressure P20 is 4.5MPa.

Valve material temperature and pressure comparison table:
Valve material and applicable pressure, temperature and grade
Gray cast iron is suitable for water, steam, air, gas, oil and other media with nominal pressure PN≤1.0MPa and temperature -10℃~200℃. Commonly used grades are: HT200, HT250, HT300, HT350.
Malleable cast iron Suitable for water, steam, air and oil media with nominal pressure PN≤2.5MPa and temperature -30~300℃. Commonly used grades are: KTH300-06, KTH330-08, KTH350-10.
Nodular cast iron is suitable for water, steam, air and oil with PN≤4.0MPa and temperature of -30~350℃. Commonly used grades are: QT400-15, QT450-10, QT500-7. At present, the level of domestic technology varies among factories, and it is often difficult for users to inspect. It is recommended that PN≤2.5MPa, and steel valves are used for safety.
Acid-resistant high-silica ductile iron Suitable for nominal pressure PN≤0.25MPa, suitable for corrosive media with temperature lower than 120℃.
Carbon steel is suitable for water, steam, air, hydrogen, ammonia, nitrogen and petroleum products with a nominal pressure of PN≤32.0MPa and a temperature of -30~425℃. Commonly used grades are WC1, WCB, ZG25, high-quality steel 20, 25, 30 and low-alloy structural steel 16Mn.
Copper alloy is suitable for water, sea water, oxygen, air, oil and other media with PN≤2.5MPa and steam media with temperature of -40~250℃. Commonly used grades are ZGnSn10Zn2 (tin bronze), H62, Hpb59-1 (brass) , QAZ19-2, QA19-4 (aluminum bronze).
High-temperature copper is suitable for steam and petroleum products with nominal pressure PN≤17.0MPA and temperature≤570℃. The specific selection must be in accordance with the valve pressure and temperature specifications. Commonly used grades are ZGCr5Mo, 1Cr5M0.ZG20CrMoV, ZG15Gr1Mo1V, 12CrMoV, WC6, WC9, etc.
Low-temperature steel is suitable for media with nominal pressure PN≤6.4Mpa and temperature≥-196℃ ethylene, propylene, liquid natural gas, liquid nitrogen, etc. Commonly used grades are ZG1Cr18Ni9, 0Cr18Ni9, 1Cr18Ni9Ti, ZG0Cr18Ni9
Stainless and acid-resistant steel Suitable for media such as nitric acid and acetic acid with nominal pressure PN≤6.4Mpa and temperature≤200℃. Commonly used grades are ZG0Cr18Ni9Ti, ZG0Cr18Ni10<nitric acid>, ZG0Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti, ZG1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti<acid and urea>

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

Related news/knowledge:
What is the material of the main parts of the butterfly valve?-(1);
Valve body and material classification;
Comparison of bellows globe valve and ordinary globe valve;
What is the material of the butterfly valve stem?
Valve material and valve standards-(6)-gasket material

Valve material and valve standards-(9)- general valve & parts materials

General valve material
The internal material combination specified by API600 for general valve material:

Stem material types hardness sealing surface
seal part no., material type hardness
13Cr 200-275 1 13Cr ≥HB250
4 13Cr ≥HB750
5 or 5A HF ≥HB350
6 13Cr/NiCu ≥HB750/≥HB175
7 13Cr/13Cr ≥HB250/≥HB750
8-8A 13Cr/HF ≥HB250/≥HB350
18Cr-8Ni no require 2 18Cr-8Ni no require
25Cr-20Ni 3 25Cr-20Ni
Nickel copper alloy 9 Nickel copper alloy
11 or 11A Nickel copper alloy/HF no require/≥HB350
18Cr-8Ni-Mo 10 18Cr-8Ni-Mo no require
12 or 12A 18Cr-8Ni-Mo/HF no require/≥HB350
19Cr-29Ni 13 19Cr-29Ni/HF no require
14 or 14A 19Cr-29Ni/HF no require/≥HB350

Commonly used valve trim material combination:

valve stem sealing surface valve stem sealing surface
13Cr 13Cr/13Cr 321 321/321
13Cr 13Cr/STL 321 321/STL
13Cr STL/STL 321 STL/STL
13Cr 13ZCr/Monel 1Cr18Ni9Ti 1Cr18Ni9Ti/1Cr18Ni9Ti
17-4PH STL/STL 1Cr18Ni9Ti 1Cr18Ni9Ti/STL
17-4PH 17-4PH/17-4PH 1Cr18Ni9Ti STL/STL
Monel Monel/Monel 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti/1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti
304 304/304 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti/STL
304 304/STL 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti STL/STL
304 STL/STL 20 Alloy 20alloy/20alloy
316 316/316 Hastelloy B Hastelloy B/Hastelloy B
316 316/STL Hastelloy C Hastelloy C/Hastelloy C
316 STL/STL F51 F51/F51
304L 304L/304L F51 F51/STL
304L 304L/STL 38CrMoALA STL/STL
304L STL/STL 25Cr2MoIV A STL/STL
316L 316L/316L 4Cr10Si2Mo STL/STL
316L 316L/STL 4Cr14Ni14W2Mo STL/STL
316L STL/STL Inconel Inconel/Inconel

Commonly used fastener material:

Bolts Nuts Max temp °C
35 25 425
35CrMo 35, 45 425
35CrMo 30CrMo 500
25Cr2MoVA 30CrMo 550
0Cr18Ni9 0Cr18Ni9 600
0Cr17Ni12Mo2 0Cr17Ni12Mo2 600
25Cr2Mo1VA 25Cr2Mo1VA 600
25Cr2MoVA 25Cr2MoVA 600

Matching materials of bolts and nuts for American standard valves:

Bolts nuts application temp
standard grade name standard grade name
ASTM A193 B7 ASTM A194 2H -29/425°C
B7M 2HM -29/425°C NACE standard, anti-sulfer valve
B16 7 -29/593°C
B8 8 -196/700°C
B8M 8M
ASTM A320 L7 4 -46/101°C Cryogenic valve

Chemical composition and mechanical properties of commonly used bolts and nuts for American standard valves:

Chemical composition and mechanical properties of commonly used bolts and nuts for American standard valves

Chemical composition and mechanical properties of commonly used bolts and nuts for American standard valves

Conditions of use of metal gaskets:

material HB max Pressure Mpa(lb) suitable temp °C
10/08 120 2.0-42(150-2500) 450
0Cr13 170 2.0-15(150-900) 540
0Cr18Ni9 160 600
0Cr17Ni12Mo2

Spiral wound gasket service conditions:

metal belt material Non-metallic belt material Pressure grade Mpa (lb) suitable temp °C
0Cr18Ni9 flexible graphite 2.0-26(150-1500) 650
0Cr17Ni12Mo2 flexible graphite
00Cr17Ni14Mo2 PTFE 200

Conditions for use of metal-clad gasket:

Cladding metal material HB filling material pressure Mpa(lb) suitable temp °C
Al L3 40 asbestos 2.0-15(150-900) 200
Co T3 60 300
Galvanized steel sheet 90 400
Galvanized steel sheet 08F
0Cr18Ni9 187 500
00Cr19Ni10
00Cr17Ni14Mo2

Use conditions of flexible graphite composite gasket:

Core board and edging material pressure grade Mpa (lb) suitable temp °C
low-carbon steel 2.0-11(150-600) 450
0Cr18Ni9 2.0-11(150-600) 650

Non-metallic gasket usage conditions:

material name code name pressure Mpa suitable temperature °C
natural rubber NR 2.0 -50/90
Neoprene CR 2.0 -40/100
NBR NBR 2.0 -30/110
Ethylbenzene rubber SBR 2.0 -30/110
EPDM rubber EPDM 2.0 -40/130
fluororubber Viton 2.0 -50/200
Asbestos Rubber Sheet XB350 XB450 NY400 2.0 ≤300 P.T≤650 Mpa °C
Oil-resistant asbestos rubber sheet
Modified or filled with PTFE 5.0 -196/260

Comparison table of common metal materials specified by Chinese, Japanese, German, British, American and international standards:

Comparison table of common metal materials specified by Chinese, Japanese, German, British, American and international standards

Comparison table of common metal materials specified by Chinese, Japanese, German, British, American and international standards

WC carbon steel +A/B/C –WCA,WCB,WCC

WC carbon steel +ABC --WCA,WCB,WCC

WC carbon steel +ABC –WCA,WCB,WCC

Please see the Full documentation at this link: https://www.tanghaivalve.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/valve-material-and-valve-standards-Detailed-version.pdf

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

Related news /knowledge:
Valve material and valve standards-(6)-gasket material;
Knife gate valve introduction and its characteristics;
Valve material and valve standards-(2)-body stem bonnet material;
What is the material of Bolts and nuts of Valve Stem?

Valve material and valve standards-(8)- Monel alloy application

4. Application of Monel alloy:
The A and E levels of M35-1, M35-2 and QQ-N2-88 are usually used to manufacture refined Monel alloy pumps,

buttefly valve stem shaft parts (6)

buttefly valve stem shaft parts (6)

valves and accessories. The B-grade (3.5%Si) Monel alloy with the highest Si content is mainly used to manufacture shafts and wear-resistant rings that require good wear resistance due to its high strength, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Class D (4.0% Si) Monel alloy is used to manufacture parts that require higher wear resistance and corrosion resistance.
Monel alloy valves have two types: integral and internal. The integral Monel alloy valve means that the valve shell and internal parts are all Monel, which is mainly used in the HF acid regeneration tower part of the alkylation unit of the refinery. Due to the high HF acid regeneration temperature (149°C) and high water content, an overall alloy valve is required. In addition, the overall Monel alloy valve is also used in the production of ashless additives for catalysts in refineries and high-concentration chlor-alkali systems in chlor-alkali plants. Situation.
The Monel alloy internal valve means that the valve housing is made of carbon steel or stainless steel, and the internal valve is made of Moenl alloy. The Monel alloy valve with carbon steel as the shell is mainly used in the low temperature area of ​​the HF calculation system of the alkylation unit of the refinery. The use of carbon steel is good for low temperature (≤71°C) anhydrous hydrofluoric acid (HF) However, carbon steel will form a film on its surface due to corrosion when used in this working condition for a long time. If carbon steel is used in the valve sealing part, the film formed after corrosion will affect the sealing performance of the valve. It should be pointed out that the commonly used Cr13 type sealing material for carbon steel valves cannot resist the corrosion of HF acid, and the internal material is much cheaper for Monel alloy valves. The Monel alloy valve with carbon steel as the shell can also be used in working conditions such as sea water. The valve housing is made of stainless steel Monel alloy internal valve, which is used in ethylene, propylene, liquid oxygen, pure oxygen, sea water and other working conditions. The monolithic Monel alloy valve and Monel alloy internal valve used in the alkylation unit require a pressure level of CL300 from a safety point of view. The pressure level of Monel alloy internal valve for other working conditions is CL150 and CL300. Or PN116-614Mpa etc.
5. Melting and casting of monel alloy:
The smelting and casting technology of Monel alloy is the key to determine whether the qualified Monel alloy castings can be produced. Because Moenl alloy has developed dendrites, shrinkage cavities and porosity, the tendency of gas absorption (hydrogen absorption, oxygen absorption) is great, and it will Sulfurizing chemical reaction occurs with molding materials. From a safety point of view, Monel alloy valves are required to undergo radiographic inspection in accordance with Class A pipeline valves in highly toxic and dangerous media such as hydrofluoric acid, chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas. . Although the American standard points out that casting M35-1 can be welded, in fact its weldability is extremely poor, and the quality of repaired castings is difficult to guarantee. The density of M35-1 alloy is 8163t/m3 (at 20°C), the solidification shrinkage rate is 21mm/m, and the alloy melting point is 1315-1345°C. The Class A and Class E of M35-1, M35-2 and QQ-N2-88 are delivered as cast. Although there are many grades of cast Monel alloy, when used to cast Monel alloy valve castings, M35-1 in ASTMA494 is mainly used.
Cast Monel alloy and deformed Monel alloy have little change in chemical composition (Table 4), but this change satisfies its better deformability for deformation and gold, while it provides better casting for cast alloys. performance. This is the reason why cast Monel alloy grades are used when casting, and deformed Monel alloy grades are used when selecting rolling materials.
Table 4. Commonly used cast and deformed Monel alloy chemical composition of valves (%)

Grade name chemical composition /%
C Mn Si P S Cu Fe Ni others
M35-1 ≤0.35 ≤1.5 ≤1.25 ≤0.03 ≤0.03 26-33 ≤3.5 Ba
Monel400 ≤0.30 ≤2.0 ≤0.5 ≤0.024 Ba ≤2.5 63-70
MonelK500 ≤0.25 ≤1.5 ≤0.5 ≤0.01 Ba ≤2.0 63-70 Al2.5-3.5, Ti0.35-0.85

6. Conclusion
The current U.S. technical standards for Monel alloys include ASTM, SAE, AMS (American Aeronautical Standards Institute), MIL (U.S. Department of Defense Standards), ANSI, ASME and QQ (American Federal Standards). For the Monel alloy of the same grade, different technical specification systems are adopted, not only the representation method of the grade is different, but the number and content of the specification are not completely the same. Usually military products use MIL, QQ or AMS specifications, and civil products use ASTM and ASME specifications.

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D.

Related news /knowledge:
Valve material and valve standards-(7)- Monel alloy;
The difference between carbon steel and cast steel;
Valve body and material classification;
What is the material of the main parts of the butterfly valve?-(1);

Valve material and valve standards-(7)- Monel alloy

Monel alloy for corrosion resistant valve
1. Introduction/overview of Monel alloy:
Monel alloy, cast nickel alloy, Hastelloy alloy, etc. are all materials for making special purpose valves. Monel alloy is a Ni-Cu alloy in nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys. It was first developed by the US Nickel Company. Its typical composition is 70% Ni and 30% Cu. It is the most widely used nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloy.

Monel alloy not only has high strength and toughness, but also has excellent resistance to corrosion by reducing acid and strong alkali media and sea water, so it is usually used to manufacture and transport hydrofluoric acid (HF), salt water, neutral media, and alkali salts. And reducing acid medium equipment. Monel alloy is also suitable for dry chlorine, hydrogen chloride, high temperature chlorine (425°C) and high temperature hydrogen chloride and other media, but it is not resistant to corrosion by sulfur-containing media and oxidizing media (such as nitric acid, media with high oxygen content), and it is nickel It reacts violently with sulfur and oxygen and easily forms Ni3S2 and NiO.

2. Performance of Monel alloy:
Monel alloy is a Ni-Cu solid solution, where Cu is used as a non-oxidizing resist added to Ni, which improves the corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and acts as a strengthening alloy. The addition of C can improve the casting performance of the alloy, but only 0.15% of C can be dissolved in the alloy at room temperature, and the excess C will be precipitated as a graphite phase. Adding 1.5%-3.5% Fe can also improve the casting performance of the alloy. Adding Mn and Si can improve the mechanical properties of the alloy, especially the content of Si has an important influence on the mechanical and physical properties of the Monel alloy.

3. Classification of Monel alloy:
Monel alloys are classified into casting alloys and deformed alloys.
3.1 Deformation alloy: There are more than 10 types of deformed Monel alloys in the United States, such as Monel400, MonelC, Monel403, Monel404, Monel R2405, Monel406, Monel411, MonelK500, MonelK501 and Monel502. Because Monel has its own representation methods in different American standard systems, SAE and ASTM jointly developed ASTM2SAE unified digital system (unified numbt system2 UNS) in order to facilitate the use and unified management of calculations. In the United States’ UNS, nickel alloys have 5 grades of deformed Monel alloys, including solid solution hardened No5500 (Monel400), No4404 (Monel404) and No4405 (MonelR2405), and precipitation hardened NO5500 (MonelK500) and NO5502 (Monel502). ) Etc. (refer to Table 1). Among them, the deformed Monel alloy commonly used in the manufacture of corrosion-resistant valves is Monel400 and MonelK500.
Table 1. Chemical composition of deformed Monel alloy in United States UNS

Grade name chemical composition/ %
C Si Mn S Ni Fe others
NO4400(Monel400) ≤0.3 ≤0.5 2 ≤0.024 63-70 ≤2.5 Cu base
No4404(Monel404) ≤0.15 ≤0.1 ≤0.1 ≤0.024 52-57 ≤0.5 Cu base, Al≤0.05
No4405(MonelR2405) ≤0.3 ≤0.5 ≤2.0 0.025-0.06 63-70 ≤2.5 Cu base
No5500(MonelK500) ≤0.25 ≤0.5 ≤1.5 ≤0.01 63-70 ≤2 Cu base, Al213-3115,Ti0135-0185
NO5502(Monel502) ≤0.10 ≤0.5 ≤1.5 ≤0.01 63-70 ≤2 Cu base, Al215-315

3.2 Casting alloy: The American cast Monel alloy has five grades of M35-1, M35-2, M-30H, M-25S and M-30C in ASTM A494 (Table 2), which is in the US Federal Standard QQ-N2-88 There are also 5 cast Monel alloys (Table 3).
Table 2. Cast Monel alloy in ASTM A494:

grade name chemical composition /% mechanical properties
C Mn Si P.S Cu Fe Ni Nb Compressive strength/Mpa Tensile strength/Mpa Elongation rate/% HB
M35-1(a) ≤0.35 ≤1.5 ≤1.25 ≤0.03 26-33 ≤3.5 Ba ≥450 ≥170 ≥25
M35-2 ≤0.35 ≤1.5 ≤2.00 ≤0.03 26-33 ≤3.5 Ba ≥450 ≥205 ≥25
M-30H ≤0.30 ≤1.5 2.7-3.7 ≤0.03 27-33 ≤3.5 Ba ≥690 ≥415 ≥10
M-25S ≤0.25 ≤1.5 3.5-4.5 ≤0.03 27-33 ≤3.5 Ba 243-294(b)
M-30C(a) ≤0.30 ≤1.5 1.0-2.0 ≤0.03 26-33 ≤3.5 Ba 1-3 ≥450 ≥225 ≥25 125-130(b)

Notes:
1.Ba=balance, means the balance is all Ni content.
2. To remove the weldability, it should be M3521 or M230C
3. This table is a data parameter
4. HB minimum is 300
Table 3 QQ2N2288 cast Monel alloy:

QQ-N-288 chemical composition /% mechanical properties
C Si Mn Cu Fe Ni Nb Compressive strength/Mpa Tensile strength/Mpa Elongation rate/% HB
A ≤0.35 ≤2.0 ≤1.5 26-33 ≤2.5 62-68 ≥448 ≥224 ≥25 125-150
B ≤0.30 2.7-3.7 ≤1.5 27-33 ≤2.5 61-68 ≥689 ≥455 ≥10 240-290
C ≤0.20 3.3-4.5 ≤1.5 27-31 ≤2.5 ≥60 ≥825 ≥550 ≥10 250-300
D ≤0.25 3.5-4.5 ≤1.5 27-31 ≤2.5 ≥60 ≥300
E ≤0.30 1.0-2.0 ≤1.5 26-33 ≤2.5 ≥60 1-3 ≥448 ≥221 ≥25 125-150

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D.

Related news /knowledge:
Valve material and valve standards-(8)- Monel alloy application;
Detailed introduction of soft sealing butterfly valve-(2);
Code of valve sealing or lining material;
Classification and advantages of gate valve;

 

Valve material and valve standards-(6)-gasket material

Valve Gasket material:
The gasket is used to fill all the unevenness between the two joint surfaces (such as the sealing surface between the valve body and the bonnet) to prevent the medium from leaking between the joint surfaces.

lug type butterfly valve, ductile iron, center lined,

lug type butterfly valve, ductile iron, center lined,

1. Requirements for gaskets: The gasket material has a certain degree of elasticity, plasticity and sufficient strength at working temperature to ensure sealing. At the same time, it must have good corrosion resistance.

2. Types and selection of gasket materials: gaskets are divided into two types: soft and hard. The soft is generally non-metallic materials, such as cardboard, rubber, asbestos rubber sheet, and PTFE. Hardness is generally metal material or metal-coated asbestos, metal and asbestos entangled, etc.

There are many forms of gaskets, including flat, round, oval, tooth-shaped, lens-shaped and other special shapes.
Metal gaskets are generally made of 08, 10, 20 high-quality carbon steel and 1Cr13, 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel, which require high machining accuracy and surface finish, and are suitable for high temperature and high pressure valves.
Non-metallic gasket materials generally have good plasticity and can be sealed with less pressure, which is suitable for low temperature and low pressure valves.
The gasket material can be selected according to Table 5-4.

Gasket material medium Pressure/Mpa Temp/°C
cardboard water, oil ≤10 40
Oil-impregnated cardboard water, oil ≤10 40
rubber board water,air ≤6 50
asbestos board steam, gas ≤6 450
PTFE corrosive ≤25 200
rubber asbestos board XB-450 water steam, air, gas ≤60 450
XB-350 water steam, air, gas ≤40 350
XB-250 water steam, air, gas ≤15 200
Oil-resistant rubber asbestos sheet oil 160 30
08 steel and XB-450 filling steam 100 450
08 steel and XB-350 filling steam 40 350
1Cr13,0Cr13 and asbestos filling steam 100 600
08 steel and oil-resistant rubber and asbestos filling oil 100 350
copper water steam,air 100 250
aluminium water steam,air 64 350
10steel, 20steel water steam, oil 2– 450
1Cr13 steam 200 550
1Cr3Ni9 steam 200 600

Attached Table 1-2 Common Materials for Valve Trim:

internal parts material suitable temp/°C internal parts material suitable temp/°C
304 -268/316 SS440 60RC -29/427
316 -268/316 17-4PH -40/427
bronze -273/232 6 alloy(Co-Cr) -273/816
inconel alloy -240/649 Electroless Nickel -268/427
K monel alloy -240/482 chrome -273/316
monel alloy -240/482 NBR -40/93
hastelloy B -198/371 Viton -23/204
hastelloy C -198/538 PTFE 200
Titanium alloy -29/316 Nylon -73/93
Nickel alloy -198/316 Polyethylene -73/93
20 alloy -46/316 Neoprene -40/82
SS416 40RC -29/427

Attached Table 1-3 Common materials and operating temperature of valve sealing surface:

Sealing surface material temp range / °C hardness suitable medium
bronze -273/232 water, seawater, air,oxygen,saturated vapor
316L -268/316 14HRC Slightly corrosive and non-impact media like steam, water, oil, gas,liquid gas
17-4PH -40/400 40-50HRC slightly corrosive and impact medium
Cr13 -101/400 37-42HRC slightly corrosive and impact medium
Stellite alloy -268/650 40-45HRC (normal temp); 38HRC (650°C) impact and corrosive medium
Monel alloy KS -240/482 27-35HRC, 30-38HRC Air-free acid solution like alkali, salt,food
Hastelloy CB 371, 538 14HRC, 23HRC Corrosive mineral acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, wet hydrochloric acid gas, chlorine-free acid solution, strong oxidizing medium
20 alloy -45.6/316 36-61HRC Oxidizing medium and various concentrations of sulfuric acid

Material table of stem, sealing surface, gasket, packing and fastener of cast iron valve:

name standard material name remarks
Vlave stem ASTM A182 F6a
ASTM A276 410,420
GB/T 1220 1Cr13, 2Cr13
sealing surface GB/T 1176 ZCuZn25A15Fe3Mn3 Cast aluminum brass
ZCuZn38Mn2Pb2 Cast manganese brass
ZCuS19Mn2, ZCuAl10Fe3 cast aluminum bronze
GB/T 1220 1Cr13,2Cr13,1Cr18Ni9,1Cr18Ni9Ti
PTFE
rubber
gasket GB/T 3985 XB350,XB450 rubber asbesto sheet
1Cr13/XB450 Spiral wound gasket
GB/T 3985 1Cr18Ni9/XB450
filler PTFE
JB/T 6617 flexible graphite ring
fastener GB/T 699 bolt 35/nut25
GB/T 3077, GB/T 699 bolt 30CrMo, 35CrMo/nut 35,45

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

Related news /knowledge:
Valve material and valve standards-(5)-packing material;
Valve material and valve standards-(9)- general valve & parts materials;
What is the material of the main parts of the butterfly valve?-(1);
Fasteners, fillers and gasket materials of valves;

Valve material and valve standards-(5)-packing material

Packing /Filler material:
On the valve, the packing is used to fill the space of the valve cover packing chamber to prevent the medium from leaking through the valve stem and the bonnet packing chamber.

ductile iron, DI, butterfly valve, manufacturer, center line, TH valve

ductile iron, DI, butterfly valve, manufacturer, center line, TH valve

Requirements for packing.

  • 1. Good corrosion resistance, the filler must be able to withstand the corrosion of the medium in contact with the medium.
  • 2. Good airtightness, the packing will not leak under the action of the medium and working temperature.
  • 3. The friction coefficient is small to reduce the friction torque between the valve stem and the packing.

Types of filler:

1. Soft filler: it is a string woven from plant matter, that is hemp, flax, cotton, jute, etc., or mineral, that is, asbestos fiber, or asbestos fiber with metal wire inside and graphite powder coated on the outside. Pressed molding fillers, and flexible graphite filler materials developed in recent years.
Vegetable packing is often used for low pressure valves below 100°C; mineral packing can be used for valves with 450-500°C. In recent years, the temperature of structural media using rubber O-rings as fillers is generally limited to below 60°C.
The packing on the high temperature and high pressure valve is also made of pure asbestos and flake graphite powder.

2. Hard filler: that is, filler made of metal or metal mixed with asbestos and graphite and filler formed by pressing and sintering of PTFE, metal filler is used less.

Selection of filling material:
The choice of packing should be based on the medium, temperature and pressure. The commonly used materials are as follows:

  • 1. Oil-impregnated asbestos rope, can be selected according to Table 5-2
  • 2. Rubber asbestos rope, can be selected according to 5-3
  • 3. Graphite asbestos rope: The asbestos rope is coated with graphite powder, the usable temperature is above 450°C, and the pressure can reach 16MPA, which is generally suitable for high-pressure steam. Lately, it gradually adopts the compressed herringbone type packing, which is placed in a single circle and has good sealing performance.
  • 4. Polytetrafluoroethylene: This is a kind of filler that is currently widely used. Especially suitable for corrosive media, but the temperature should not exceed 200°C. Generally, it is made by pressing or rod car.

Fig.5-2:

Material Grade name shape size(dia or square) Max Pressure kgf/cm2 max temp/ °C application
Oil-impregnated asbestos rope YS450 F 3,4,5,6,8,10,13,16,19,22,25 60 450 water, steam,air,petroleum products
Y 5,6,8,10,13,16,19,22,25
N 3,5,6,8,10,13,16,19,22,25
YS350 F,Y,N 3,5,6,8,10,13,16,19,22,25 45 350
YS250 F,Y,N 3,5,6,8,10,13,16,19,22,25 45 250

Note: The shape code F means square, through the heart or one or more layers of weaving; Y means round, with a twisted core in the middle and one or more layers of weaving on the outside; N means twisted.

Fig.5-3:

Material Grade name size(dia or square) Max Pressure kgf/cm2 max temp/ °C application
Rubber, asbestos, packing XS450 3,4,5,6,8,10,13,16,19,22,25,28 60 450 steam,petroleum products
XS350 45 350
XS250 45 250

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

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Valve material and valve standards-(4)-fastener material

Fastener materials: Fasteners mainly include bolts, studs and nuts. The fastener directly bears the pressure on the

bolts and nuts for butterfly valve

bolts and nuts for butterfly valve

valve, which plays a key role in preventing the outflow of the medium. Therefore, the selected material must ensure sufficient strength and impact toughness at the operating temperature.

When selecting fastener materials according to medium pressure and temperature, the following table can be selected:

Name Pn(Mpa) medium temp /°C
300 350 400 425 450 530
bolt
Stud bolt
1.6-2.5 Q235(A3) 35 30CrMoA
4.0-10.0 35 35CrMoA 25Cr2MoVA
16.0-20.0 30CrMoA 35CrMoA 25Cr2MoVA
nut 1.6-2.5 Q235(A3) 30 35
4.0-10.0 30 35 35CrMoA
16.0-20.0 35 35CrMoA

Heat treatment must be carried out when selecting alloy steel materials. When there are special corrosion resistance requirements for fasteners, stainless acid-resistant steels such as Cr17Ni2, 2Cr13, 1Cr18Ni9 can be selected.

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

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Valve material and valve standards-(3)-sealing material

Section 2: Sealing surface material
The sealing surface is the most critical working surface of the valve. The quality of the sealing surface is related to the service life of the valve. Generally, the sealing surface material considers factors such as corrosion resistance, scratch resistance, erosion resistance, and oxidation resistance. Generally, sealing surface materials are divided into two categories:
1. Soft materials

soft sealing marine valve, rubber sealing, valve seat parts

soft sealing marine valve, rubber sealing, valve seat parts

1. Rubber (including nitrile rubber, ethylene propylene rubber, fluorine rubber, etc.)
2. Plastics (polytetrafluoroethylene, nylon, etc.)
2. Hard sealing material
1. Copper alloy (for low pressure valve)
2. Chrome stainless steel (used for ordinary high and medium pressure valves)
3. Stellite alloy (used for high temperature and high pressure valves and strong corrosion valves)
4. Nickel-based alloy (used for corrosive media)

Section 3: Valve Stem Material
During the opening and closing of the valve, the valve stem bears tensile, compressive and torsional forces, and is in direct contact with the medium. At the same time, there is relative frictional movement with the packing. Therefore, the valve stem material must ensure sufficient strength at the specified temperature And impact toughness, a certain degree of corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance, and good manufacturability. Commonly used valve stem materials are as follows:
1. Carbon steel: For water with low temperature and medium temperature not exceeding 300°C, when steam

18 buttefly-valve-stem-shaft-parts-1

18 buttefly-valve-stem-shaft-parts-1

medium, A5 ordinary carbon steel is generally selected (now Q275, A3 is Q235)
2. Alloy steel: For medium pressure and high pressure, when the medium temperature does not exceed 450°C, 40Cr (chromium steel) is generally used when the medium temperature does not exceed 450°C. Water, the medium temperature does not exceed 540°C For steam and other media, 38CrMoAlA nitriding steel can be selected; for high-pressure steam media with a medium temperature not exceeding 570°C, 25Cr2MoVA chromium molybdenum vanadium steel is generally selected.
3. Stainless and acid-resistant steel: used for medium and high pressure, non-corrosive and weakly corrosive media with a medium temperature not exceeding 450°C. 1Cr13, 2Cr13, 3Cr13 chromium stainless steel can be selected; when used in corrosive media, it can be used Use Cr17Ni2, 1Cr18Ni9Ti, Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti, Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti and other stainless acid-resistant steels and PH15-7Mo precipitation hardening steels.
4. Heat-resistant steel: 4Cr10Si2Mo martensitic heat-resistant steel and 4Cr14Ni14W2Mo austenitic heat-resistant steel can be used for high-temperature valves whose medium temperature does not exceed 600°C.

Section 4: Valve Stem Nut Material
The stem nut directly bears the axial force of the stem during the opening and closing of the valve, so it must have a certain strength. At the same time, it and the valve stem are threaded transmission, which requires a small coefficient of friction, no rust and avoid seizure. The main materials are as follows:
1. Copper alloy: Copper alloy has a small friction coefficient and does not rust. It is one of the commonly used materials. For low pressure valves with Pg<1.6Mpa, ZHMn58-2-2 cast brass can be used.
2. Steel: When the working conditions do not allow the use of copper alloys, high-quality carbon steels such as 35, 40, 2Cr13, 1Cr18Ni9, Cr17Ni2 and other stainless and acid-resistant steels can be selected. The working conditions do not allow the following:
For electric valves, stem nuts with gua-shaped clutches require heat treatment to obtain high hardness or surface hardness.
When the working medium or the surrounding environment is not suitable for copper alloys, such as ammonia medium that is corrosive to copper.
When selecting steel stem nuts, pay special attention to thread seizure.

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

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Valve material and valve standards-(2)-body stem bonnet material

Selection of valve material:
There are many materials for manufacturing valve parts, including various types of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and their alloys, and various non-metallic materials. The materials for manufacturing valve parts are selected

16 U-type-flange-butterfly-vlave-body

16 U-type-flange-butterfly-vlave-body

according to the following factors:
1. The pressure, temperature and characteristics of the working medium.
2. The force of the part and its function in the valve structure.
3. Have better manufacturability.
4. If the above conditions are met, there must be a lower cost.

Section one: the material of the valve body, bonnet and valve plate
1. Gray cast iron: Gray cast iron is suitable for water, steam, air, gas, oil and other media with a nominal pressure of PN≤1.0MPa and a temperature of -10°C–200°C. The commonly used grades of gray cast iron are: HT200, HT250, HT300, HT500.

2.. Malleable cast iron: suitable for water, steam, air and oil media with a nominal pressure of PN≤2.5Mpa and a temperature of -30-300°C. Commonly used grades are: KTH300-06, KTH330-08, KTH350-10.

3. Nodular cast iron: suitable for water, steam, air and oil with PN≤4.0Mpa and temperature of -30-350°C. Commonly used grades are: QT400-15, QT450-10, QT500-7.

4. Carbon steel (WCA, WCB, WCC): Suitable for nominal pressure PN≤32MPa, suitable for medium and high pressure valves with operating temperature between -29°C and +425°C. Among them, 16Mn and 30Mn work at -29-595°C, and are often used to replace ASTM A105. Commonly used grades are WC1, WCB, ZG25 and high-quality steel 20, 25, 30 and low-alloy structural steel 16Mn.

5. Low temperature carbon steel (LCB): suitable for ethylene, propylene, liquid natural gas, liquid nitrogen and other media with nominal pressure PN≤6.4MPa and temperature ≥-196°C. Commonly used grades are ZG1Cr18Ni9, 0Cr18Ni9, 1Cr18Ni9Ti, ZG0Cr18Ni9.

6. Alloy steel (WC6, WC9), suitable for high temperature and high pressure valves with non-corrosive medium working temperature between -29-595°C; WC5, WC9 are suitable for working temperature between -29-659°C High temperature and high pressure valves for corrosive media.

7. Austenitic stainless steel, suitable for valves with corrosive media with working temperature between -196-600°C.
Eight. Monel alloy: mainly suitable for valves with hydrofluoric medium.
nine. Cast copper alloy: Mainly suitable for valves for oxygen pipelines whose operating temperature is between -29 and 595°C

Fig.1-1 Commonly used valve body material:

valve body material standard temp PN/Mpa medium
Grey cast Iron -15/200 ≤1.6 water,gas
Black Heart Malleable Cast Iron -15/300 ≤2.5 water, seawater, gas, Ammonia
ductile cast iron -30/350 ≤4.0 water,seawater,gas,air,steam
carbon steel (WCA,WCB,WCC) ASTM A216 -29/425 ≤32 non-corrosive water, oil, gas
Low temp carbon steel (LCB,LCC) ASTM A352 -46/345 ≤32 low temp application
Alloy(WC6,WC9,C5,C12) ASTM A217 -29/595 -29/650 High pressure non-corrosive corrosive medium
Austenitic stainless steel ASTM A351 -196/600 corrosive medium
Monel alloy ASTM A494 400 Hydrofluoric acid medium
Hastelloy ASTM A494 649 Strong corrosive medium such as dilute sulfuric acid
Titanium alloy Various strong corrosive media
Cast copper alloy -273/200 Oxygen, sea water
Plastic, Ceramic -60 ≤1.6 corrosive medium

 

Name material standard temp range °C application
WCB carbon steel ASTM A216 -29/425 non-corrosive water, oil and gas
LCB low temp carbon steel ASTM A352 -46/345 low temp applicaion
LC3 3.5% nickel steel ASTM A352 -101/340 low temp applicaion
WC6 1.25% chromium,         0.5% molybdenum ASTM A217 -30/593 non-corrosive water, oil and gas
WC9 2.25% chromium
C5 5% chromium,0.5% molybdenum ASTM A217 -30/649 light or non-corrosive application
C12 9% chromium 1% molybdenum
CA15(4) 12% chromium ASTM A217 704 corrosive application
CA6NM(4) 12% chromium ASTM A487 -30/482 corrosive application
CF8M stainless steel 316 ASTM A351 -268/649 when <425, need C=0.04% info corrosive,ultra low/high temp with no corrosive application
CF8C stainless steel 347 ASTM A351 -268/649 when <425, need C=0.04% info high temp, corrosive application
CF8 stainless steel 304 ASTM A351 -268/649 when <425, need C=0.04% info corrosive,ultra low/high temp with no corrosive application
CF3 stainless steel 304L ASTM A351 425 corrosive or non-corrosive
CF3M stainless steel 316L ASTM A351 454 corrosive or non-corrosive
CN7M alloy ASTM A351 425 Good resistance to hot sulfuric acid corrosion
M35-1 monel ASTM A494 400 Weldable grade, good resistance to common organic acid and salt water corrosion, resistance to most alkaline solutions
N7M Hastelloy B ASTM A494 649 Suitable for treating various concentrations and temperatures of hydrofluoric acid, with good resistance to corrosion by sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid
CW6M Hastelloy C ASTM A494 649 Very good resistance to strong oxidation, resistance to phosphoric acid, sulfurous acid and sulfuric acid at high temperatures
CY40 Inconel alloy ASTM A494 Resistant to strong corrosive fluids at high temperatures

TH Valve is a professional manufacturer of butterfly valvegate valvecheck valveglobe valveknife gate valve, ball valve with API, JIS, DIN standard, used in Oil, Gas, Marine industry, Water supply and drainage, fire fighting, shipbuilding, water treatment and other systems, with Nominal Diameter of DN50 to DN1200, NBR/EPDM/VITON, Certificates & Approvals: DNV-GL, Lloyds, DNV, BV, API, ABS, CCS. Standards: EN 593, API609, API6D

Related news/knowledge:
Valve material and valve standards-(9)- general valve & parts materials;
Valve material and valve standards-(1);
Valve body and material classification;
Valve material and valve standards-(6)-gasket material

 

Valve material and valve standards-(1)

What material is WCB/LCB/LCC/WC6/WC in the valve?
W, wrought casting; C, Carbon steel; A, B, C indicate the strength value of steel grades from low to high.

lug type butterfly valve-ductile iron

lug type butterfly valve-ductile iron

WCA, WCA, WCC represent carbon steel, ABC represents the strength level, and WCB is commonly used. The corresponding pipe material of WCB should be A106B, and the corresponding forging material should be A105.
WC6 is an alloy steel casting, the corresponding pipe material is about A355 P11, and the forging is A182 F11; there is also WC9, high temperature resistant alloy steel, the corresponding pipe material is about A355 P22, and the corresponding forging is A182 F22.
WC: weldable casting
LCB/LCC (ASTM A352) low temperature carbon steel
ITCS is carbon steel with impact toughness; impact test C=carbon S=steel (A350)
Split body split type, side entry side mounted (referring to the actuator), corresponding to TOP entry top mounted type

Commonly used valve casting and forging carbon steel material table

material country standard material grade name
Casting China GB/T 12229 WCA WCB WCC
ZG205-415 ZG250-485 ZG275-485
USA ASTM A216/A216M WCA WCB WCC
UNS J02502 UNS J03002 UNS J02503
Forged China GB/T 12228 GB/T 699 25 25Mn 35 40 A105
USA ASTM A105/A105M A105

Low temperature casting parts material name and temperature range

C C C-Mn C-Mo 2.5Ni Ni-Cr-Mo 3.5Ni 4.5Ni 9Ni Cr-Ni-Mo
LCA LCB LCC LC1 LC2 LC2-1 LC3 LC4 LC9 CA6NM
J02504 J03303 J02505 J12522 J22500 j42215 j31550 j41500 j31300 j91540
-32 -46 -46 -59 -73 -73 -101 -115 -115 -73

Commonly used valve ASTM Casting and Forged material sheet (ASME B16.5)

ASTM Casting ASTM Forged China name Temp °C suitable medium
Carbon steel
A216 WCB A105 20 -29/427 water,steam,air,petroleum products
Low temp Carbon steel
A352 LCB A350 LF2 16Mn -46/343
A352 LCC A350 LF2 16Mn -46/343
High temp alloy
A217 WC1 A182 F1 20MnMo -29/454 High temp, High pressure medium
A217 WC6 A182 F11 15CrMo -29/552 High temp, High pressure medium
A217 WC9 A182 F22 10Cr2Mo1 -29/593 High temp, High pressure medium
A217 C5 A182 F5 1Cr5Mo -29/650 Corrosive high temperature medium
A217 C12 A182 F9 Cr9Mo1 -29/593 High sulfur oxidizing medium
Martensitic stainless steel
A217 CA15 A182 F6a Cr9Mo1 -29/593 High sulfur oxidizing medium
Austenitic stainless steel(C≤0.08)
A351 CF8 A182 F304 0Cr18Ni9 -196/537 corrosive medium
A351 CF3 A182 F304L -196/425 corrosive medium
A351 CF8M A182 F316 0Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti -196/537 corrosive medium
A351 CF3M A182 F316L -196/425 corrosive medium
low carbon Austenitic stainless steel(C≤0.03)
A351 CF3 A182 F304L 00Cr18Ni10 -0.459016393 corrosive medium
A351 CF3M A182 F316L 00Cr18Ni14Mo2 -196/454 corrosive medium
Special alloy
A351 CN7M B462Gr.NO8020 (ALLOY20) -29/149 Oxidizing medium and various concentrations of sulfuric acid
A494 M-30C (Monel alloy) B4564 Gr.NO4400 -29/482 Hydrofluoric acid, Sea water
Hastelloy H.B H.C Strong corrosive medium such as dilute sulfuric acid

Notes:
1. Forged valve body material is dense, not easy to have defects, the structure size is not limited by the mold, and the pressure bearing performance is reliable. It is mostly used for high pressure, oxygen working conditions, small diameter or other small batch valve manufacturing, generally at high temperature, Choose forgings under high pressure or low temperature or special medium; castings are generally only suitable for medium and low pressure, and are mostly used for mass production of standardized molded valves.

2. The difference between material A351 CF3M and A182 F316L: the materials corresponding to the two standards are 316 stainless steel. CF3M stands for castings and is often used as valve material. The corresponding forging steel code is A182 F316L. ASTM A216 WCB is a casting, and its forging is A105; the casting of SS304 is A351-CF8, and the forging is A182-F304.